The first study in the article concluded that the best way to eliminate racial inequality in the future, specifically with income inequality, would be to provide black and white students with the same skills.
New findings also show that gains in relative earnings are limited to blacks born in the to cohorts ages 28—35 in and show no gains for other age groups. These results would rather be indicating that black gains in the s were influenced by the Civil Rights and War on Poverty periods 25—30 years before the s.
Racial Inequality in the 21st Century: In one group, controlling for gender, the study found that, of the eighth graders, African-American students were 4.
The third study demonstrates that the inherent deviation in education in children before they enter school depends on their parental environment. The National Bureau of Economic Research uses the term "gains" to reflect improvement in racial convergence. Teacher and parent referrals would be acknowledged by comprehensive screening programs being introduced into school districts today.
The study found that African-Americans in the North Carolina public school system are greatly disadvantaged. The entire NBER article ultimately concludes that we still do not know how to close the achievement gap because of the present color line, but there are certainly ways to increase individual student achievement that may eventually make schools more productive overall.
When these tests were implemented on a small scale the statistics showed an increase in Hispanic students by percent, and the number of black students increased by 80 percent.
The study National bureau of economic research working paper series mentions historically black colleges in North Carolina, and briefly questions whether they remain a positive contribution in contemporary America, arguing that they were a reaction to Jim Crow laws and tend to isolate African-American students from other racial groups.
National bureau of economic research working paper series was succeeded by Malcolm C. However, the next study about exclusively high school students shows that eighth grade test scores specifically play a key role in the growing gap between high school students and their graduation rates.
Its first staff economist, director of research, and one of its founders was American economist Wesley Mitchell. One issue that the new screening tests would fix compared to the older referrals is that non-English speaking students are overlooked because of a lack of parental referrals due to language barriers.
It is concluded that black gains were centered among cohorts of blacks born in the South during the s and 70s; therefore, not only is the study geographically exclusive, but data is also inconsistent with the contemporary causes in the s and s.
In conclusion the authors suggest that the issues found in gifted educational programs can be fixed by comprehensive screenings.
The next study indicates that white children show a higher level of education than black students as young as two years old.
It then tracks these students through their expected graduation dates of both high school and college, given they continued to a North Carolina university, and they examined whatever racial stratification occurred within those time periods based on enrollment and graduation rates at each university.
Controlling for test scores, majors, and other scholastic factors, the study looks at administrative data from North Carolina K public schools of eighth graders both in andcategorized both by race and socioeconomic standing. Using data from the University of North Carolina system, which encompasses all public colleges in the state, the study looks at racial inequality at the collegiate level in regards to enrollment, completion, and various achievements, and the causation of such inequity.
To conclude, the findings of this updated study indicate that racial gains are due primarily in part to birth date and birthplace. The screening tests that school districts are beginning to implement test students on a variety of characteristics to see whether or not they would qualify and succeed in gifted education programs.
These statistics indicate that there are little to no consequences for minorities when these tests that are being implemented. Similarly, the fourth study concludes that intervention programs before children enter schools still need a lot of work and are beneficial in some ways, but ultimately do not close the gap in education between black and white students.
Prior studies have concluded black gains in AFQT and NAEP scores in the early s, black gains in college enrollment in the mids, and black gains in earnings throughout the s.
The seventh study analyzes the effect of intervention programs on students once they have entered school, and indicates that improvement within schools and teaching alone can positively affect the achievement of black students and make them more comparable to that of white students.
The Declining Significance of Discrimination[ edit ]  The National Bureau of Economic Research analyzed the hindrances in quality of education of black and Hispanic students compared to the education of white students, the causes for black students to fall behind in the classroom faster that white students, as well as the attempts to fix these gaps in education between races.
The research programs are: Possible explanations for this are that the older children are tested differently than younger children, which could have more to do with what the child has observed throughout the years than what they are innately capable of, that there are racial differences in the rates in which children develop, and that genes and environmental influences also come into play.
With response to the education gap, new findings show that the cross-cohort gains in college enrollment only pertained to blacks born in the South there were no relative gains for black in the North.
The authors address one occurring problem with theses tests:James Poterba, president James Poterba is President of the National Bureau of Economic Research.
He is also the Mitsui Professor of Economics at M.I.T. The technique of instrumental variables is one of the most widely used tools in empirical economic research. When the source of exogenous variation in the explanatory variables accounts for only a small share of the variation in these variables — the so-called "weak instruments" problem — standard IV methods can yield biased results in small samples and can result in incorrect inferences.
NBER WORKING PAPER SERIES MINIMUM WAGE INCREASES, WAGES, AND LOW-WAGE EMPLOYMENT: EVIDENCE FROM SEATTLE Ekaterina Jardim Mark C. Long Robert Plotnick. Coordinates. The National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) is an American private nonprofit research organization "committed to undertaking and disseminating unbiased economic research among public policymakers, business professionals, and the academic community." The NBER is well known for providing start and end dates for recessions in the United States.Download