The most proper style of our aestheticians is to exercise their lame wits on such a collection and to overlook the phenomenon which is really worth explaining. The very best thing for you is totally unreachable: Because of his Titanic love for mankind Prometheus had to be ripped apart by the vulture.
Now the dithyrambic chorus takes on the task of stimulating the mood of the listeners right up to the Dionysian level, so that when the tragic hero appeared on the stage, they did not see something like an awkward masked person but a visionary shape born, as it were, out of their own enchantment.
It is the sort of illusion which nature uses so frequently in order to attain her objectives. These images, with their bright colours, sudden alteration, and their wild momentum, reveal a power completely foreign to the epic illusion and its calm forward progress.
Much more famous than this political explanation of the chorus is A. Singing and dancing, man expresses himself as a member of a The similarities and differences between hamlet and the bacchae unity.
The earth freely offers up her gifts, and the beasts of prey from the rocks and the desert approach in peace.
Here we have demonstrated the one possible relationship between poetry and music, word and tone: The enraptured horde of those who served Dionysus rejoiced under the influence of such moods and insights, whose power transformed them before their very eyes, so that they imagined themselves as restored natural geniuses, as satyrs.
For we had always thought that the proper spectator, whoever he might be, must always remain conscious that he has a work of art in front of him, not an empirical reality.
This chorus in its vision gazes at its lord and master Dionysus and is thus always the chorus of servants. This opposition became more dubious and even impossible as similar impulses gradually broke out from the deepest roots of Hellenic culture itself. The poetry of the lyricist can express nothing which was not already latent in the immense universality and validity of the music, which forces him to speak in images.
Under the impulse to speak of music in Apollonian metaphors, he understands all nature and himself in nature only as eternal willing, desiring, yearning. The world symbolism of music for this very reason cannot in any way be overcome by or reduced to language, because music addresses itself symbolically to the primordial contradiction and pain in the heart of the original oneness, and thus presents in symbolic form a sphere which is above all appearances and prior to them.
With this, drama is the Apollonian projection of Dionysian knowledge and effects, and thus is separated by an immense gulf from epic. On this question classical antiquity itself gives us illustrative evidence when it places Homer and Archilochus next to each other as the originators and torch-bearers of Greek poetry in paintings, cameos, and so on, in full confidence that only these two should be considered equally the original natures from whom a fire-storm flowed out over the entire later world of the Greeks.
But now this music becomes perceptible to him once again, as in a metaphorical dream image, under the influence of Apollonian dreaming. The contradictory ecstasy born from of pain spoke of itself right out of the heart of nature. According to the ideas of Lucretius, the marvelous divine shapes first appeared to the mind of man in a dream.
We suspect that the birth of tragedy cannot be explained either from the high estimation of the moral intelligence of the masses or from the idea of the spectator without a play. The enchantment speaks out in his gestures.
At least that is my experience.
It will become crystal clear to some that between Homer and Pindar the orgiastic flute melodies of Olympus must have rung out, music which even in the time of Aristotle, in the midst of an infinitely more sophisticated music, drove people into raptures of drunken enthusiasm and with their natural effects no doubt stimulated all the poetical forms of expression of contemporaries to imitate them.
The man is no longer an artist. These constructs are the Sublime as the artistic mastering of the horrible and the Comic as the artistic release from disgust at the absurd. With what astonishment must the Apollonian Greek have gazed at him! The melody is thus primary and universal, for which reason it can undergo many objectifications, in several texts.
But music appears as the will.
The un-Apollonian character of Dionysian music keeps such an element of gentle caution at a distance, and with that turns music generally into emotionally disturbing tonal power, a unified stream of melody, and the totally incomparable world of harmony.
As the last, it is possible for us to imagine how he sinks down in the Dionysian drunkenness and mystical obliteration of the self, alone and apart from the rapturous throng, and how through the Apollonian effects of dream his own state now reveals itself to him, that is, his unity with the innermost basis of the world, in a metaphorical dream picture.
But what is the folk song in comparison to the completely Apollonian epic poem? As its power increases, the subjective fades into complete forgetfulness of self. In contrast to this, we maintain that the entire opposition, which even Schopenhauer uses as a measurement of value to classify art, that opposition of the subjective and the objective, has generally no place in aesthetics, since the subject, the willing individual demanding his own egotistical purposes, can only be thought of as an enemy of art not as its origin.
He has, first of all, as a Dionysian artist, become entirely one with the primordial oneness of his painful contradictory nature and produces the reflection of this primordial oneness as music, if music can with justice be called a re-working of the world, its second coat.
This conception of ours provides a full explanation for the chorus of Greek tragedy, the symbol for the total frenzied Dionysian multitude.
There is an old saying to the effect that King Midas for a long time hunted the wise Silenus, the companion of Dionysus, in the forests, without catching him.Project Gutenberg Australia a treasure-trove of literature treasure found hidden with no evidence of ownership. Apollo versus Dionysus Excerpts from The Birth of Tragedy (), translated by Ian Johnston.
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